Book Image

Practical C Programming

By : B. M. Harwani
Book Image

Practical C Programming

By: B. M. Harwani

Overview of this book

Used in everything from microcontrollers to operating systems, C is a popular programming language among developers because of its flexibility and versatility. This book helps you get hands-on with various tasks, covering the fundamental as well as complex C programming concepts that are essential for making real-life applications. You’ll start with recipes for arrays, strings, user-defined functions, and pre-processing directives. Once you’re familiar with the basic features, you’ll gradually move on to learning pointers, file handling, concurrency, networking, and inter-process communication (IPC). The book then illustrates how to carry out searching and arrange data using different sorting techniques, before demonstrating the implementation of data structures such as stacks and queues. Later, you’ll learn interesting programming features such as using graphics for drawing and animation, and the application of general-purpose utilities. Finally, the book will take you through advanced concepts such as low-level programming, embedded software, IoT, and security in coding, as well as techniques for improving code performance. By the end of this book, you'll have a clear understanding of C programming, and have the skills you need to develop robust apps.
Table of Contents (20 chapters)

Converting the vowels in a sentence to uppercase

In this recipe, you will learn how to convert all of the lowercase vowels in a sentence to uppercase. The remaining characters in the sentence, including consonants, numbers, special symbols, and special characters, are simply ignored and will be left as they are.

Converting the casing of any letter is done by simply changing the ASCII value of that character, using the following formulas:

  • Subtract 32 from the ASCII value of a lowercase character to convert it to uppercase
  • Add 32 to the ASCII value of an uppercase character to convert it to lowercase

The following diagram shows the ASCII values of the uppercase and lowercase vowels:

Figure 2.12

The ASCII value of the uppercase letters is lower than that of lowercase letters, and the difference between the values is 32.