Book Image

Practical C Programming

By : B. M. Harwani
Book Image

Practical C Programming

By: B. M. Harwani

Overview of this book

Used in everything from microcontrollers to operating systems, C is a popular programming language among developers because of its flexibility and versatility. This book helps you get hands-on with various tasks, covering the fundamental as well as complex C programming concepts that are essential for making real-life applications. You’ll start with recipes for arrays, strings, user-defined functions, and pre-processing directives. Once you’re familiar with the basic features, you’ll gradually move on to learning pointers, file handling, concurrency, networking, and inter-process communication (IPC). The book then illustrates how to carry out searching and arrange data using different sorting techniques, before demonstrating the implementation of data structures such as stacks and queues. Later, you’ll learn interesting programming features such as using graphics for drawing and animation, and the application of general-purpose utilities. Finally, the book will take you through advanced concepts such as low-level programming, embedded software, IoT, and security in coding, as well as techniques for improving code performance. By the end of this book, you'll have a clear understanding of C programming, and have the skills you need to develop robust apps.
Table of Contents (20 chapters)

Creating an adjacency list representation of a directed graph

In an adjacency list representation, linked lists are used to represent the adjacent vertices of a vertex. That is, a separate linked list is made for the adjacent vertices of each vertex, and, in the end, all the vertices of the graph are connected. Because linked lists are used, this way of representing a graph uses memory in a more optimized manner. 

Consider the following directed graph:

Figure 10.7

Its adjacency list representation is as follows:

Figure 10.8

You can see in the preceding diagram that the adjacent vertices of vertex 1 are connected in the form of a linked list. Because there are no adjacent vertices for vertex 2, its pointer is pointing to NULL. Similarly, the adjacent vertices of vertex 3, that is, vertices 4 and 5, are connected to vertex 3 in the form of a linked list. Once a linked...