Book Image

Practical C Programming

By : B. M. Harwani
Book Image

Practical C Programming

By: B. M. Harwani

Overview of this book

Used in everything from microcontrollers to operating systems, C is a popular programming language among developers because of its flexibility and versatility. This book helps you get hands-on with various tasks, covering the fundamental as well as complex C programming concepts that are essential for making real-life applications. You’ll start with recipes for arrays, strings, user-defined functions, and pre-processing directives. Once you’re familiar with the basic features, you’ll gradually move on to learning pointers, file handling, concurrency, networking, and inter-process communication (IPC). The book then illustrates how to carry out searching and arrange data using different sorting techniques, before demonstrating the implementation of data structures such as stacks and queues. Later, you’ll learn interesting programming features such as using graphics for drawing and animation, and the application of general-purpose utilities. Finally, the book will take you through advanced concepts such as low-level programming, embedded software, IoT, and security in coding, as well as techniques for improving code performance. By the end of this book, you'll have a clear understanding of C programming, and have the skills you need to develop robust apps.
Table of Contents (20 chapters)

Binary tree

A tree in which all of the nodes can have two children or siblings (at most) is called a binary tree. A binary tree has the following characteristics:

  • A tree contains, at most, 2l nodes at level l.
  • If a binary tree contains m nodes at level l, it contains at most 2m nodes at level l+1.
  • A tree contains 2d leaves and therefore 2d-1 non-leaf nodes, where d is its depth.
  • A binary tree with n internal nodes has (n+1) external nodes.
  • A binary tree with n nodes has exactly n+1 NULL links (see the following screenshot):

Binary search trees

A binary search tree is a tree in which the time to search an element is O(log2n) (which is faster than searching an element in a binary tree, where O(n)). But to support O(log2n...